. Historically, the Latin subjunctive adopted the optative forms, while some of the original subjunctive forms went on to compose the Latin future tense, especially in the Latin third conjugation. 534. Nec cōnsul, ut quī id ipsum quaesīsset, moram certāminī fēcit. You may have noticed that the vowel which precedes the personal ending of verbs varies from verb to verb (e.g., plōrat, videt, sūmit, venit). Tantus in cūriā clāmor factus est ut populus concurreret. Sunt bēstiae quaedam in quibus inest aliquid simile virtūtis. The VL is the base for the today's Romance languages. The Latin subjunctive exists in four tenses: the present, imperfect, perfect and pluperfect. In Latin, the imperfect subjunctive is almost always used in a subordinate clause; there is no hortatory subjunctive which uses the imperfect tense. 1.10)a time of life soft and easy to be guided. Clauses of result take the subjunctive introduced by ut (so that)—negative, ut nōn —or by a relative pronoun or relative adverb.. You’ve already learned 2. This means that it occupies a middle ground between a verb and a noun and shows characteristics of both. The characterizing force is most easily felt when the antecedent is indefinite or general. Present and imperfect verbs in purpose clauses should be translated with the auxiliary verbs "may" and "might," respectively. 1.16.12)a source fit to give a name to a stream, aetās mollis et apta regī (Ov. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. (Tac. The fact that the speaker represents an event as something he or she has thought about no doubt contributed to the rule in Classical Latin that all subordinate clauses in indirect discourse take the subjunctive: it was the mood … ), idōneus quī impetret (Manil. to. The same personal endings are affixed to si-. Canachī sīgna rigidiōra sunt quam ut imitentur vēritātem. 1.1)(things) worth spending their toil on(worthy on which they should, etc.). The Subjunctive Mood indicates a hypothetical or potential action such as “If I were President, I would lower taxes.” The indicative and imperative moods function similarly in Latin and English. !3rd conjugation:!-i-and -e- are sometimes called Relative Clauses with an Indefinite Antecedent, but are to be carefully distinguished from the indefinite relative in protasis (§ 520). (Fam. a. A. There are four subjunctives: present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect. (indicative)That commander who does not (as a fact) restrain himself cannot restrain his army. characteristic surface projections called peplomers, which are about20nmlongand10nmwide. Subjunctives in independent clauses are often translated as volitive/optative (that is, as a wish). Latin uses the subjunctive is a variety of sentence clauses. In general, the Latin subjunctive is a mood of hypothetical verbal activity. Convīvia cum patre nōn inībat, quippe qui nē in oppidum quidem nisi perrārō venīret. "Were I a king, I would have a golden throne." "cedat" as a jussive subjunctive is "let her depart"; "deprehendatur"= "Let him be seized", The potential or possibility of something happening, in any person: (Fortasse) te amem. 70)The statues of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature. dīgna in quibus ēlabōrārent (Tusc. "May the force be with you!" In the present subjunctive, the theme vowel for every conjugation changes; in effect, the first conjugation masquerades as the second conjugation and all the other conjugations take on the appearance of the first. b. In Latin, there is no word for "then" in conditional sentences, so the two parts are set apart with just a comma. Characteristic: Who is so ill-prepared who would fight without a shield? Note 1— In this use the relative is equivalent to cum is etc. Note 1— This construction is sometimes explained as a relative clause of purpose, but it is more closely related to characteristic. Dīgna rēs est ubi tū nervōs intendāstuōs. !2nd conjugation:!-ē-! are used like est quī, sunt quī. Definition: Describes some general quality of an antecedent that is itself either general, indefinite, interrogative, or negative, and accordingly has its verb in the subjunctive. (Off. 34)You are the only man in whose victory no one has fallen unless armed. [indicative=fact] [subjunctive=potential] Formation of the Imperfect Subjunctive fōns rīvō dare nōmen idōneus (Hor. This video clarifies what indirect commands are, how to recognize them in Latin, and how to translate them. Latin II Second Semester Review Sheet Subordinate Clauses 1. The subjunctive mainly expresses doubt or potential and what could have been. However, throughout its history, the subjunctive came to be used more and more as a grammatical marker of subordination. 3rd Declension: Liquid and Nasal Stems, m. / f. 3rd Declension: Liquid and Nasal Stem, N. 4th Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 5th Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: ā- and o- stems, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: stems ending in -ro, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: Gen. in -īus, Dat. (worthy wherein you should, etc. Nīl admīrārī prope rēs est ūna sōlaque quae possitfacere et servāre beātum. Some ways to remember this are in the following collapsed table. Sōlus es cûius in victōriā ceciderit nēmō nisi armātus. So far all of the verbs that we have encountered have been in what is called the indicative mood. . It is used in the active and passive voice, and it can change according to the conjugation. 57)fit to obtain, indīgnī ut redimerēmur (Liv. (Deiot. (Lael. So especially with sunt quī [there are (some) who] and quis est quī (who is there who?). (3) The dative case shows reference. (Ter. (hence, I am not so dull as to say this. neque enim tū is es quī nesciās (Fam. Conjugate a Latin Verb. (stiffer than that they should), Mâiōrēs arborēs caedēbant quam quās ferre mīles posset. Catōnis ōrātiōnēs, quās quidem invēnerim (Brut. Such an outcry was made in the senate-house that the people hurried together. (Fam. Volitive (Wish): May we be friends forever! Whereas the indicative declares "this happened" or "that happened," the imperative is called 'jussive,' which is from 'iubere' - to command, bid. Caesar went to Gaul in order that he might attackthe enemies. However three moods of a verb exist in Latin. (Fam. 42.7)Nor did the consul delay the fight, since he had sought that very thing. Tantus in cūriā clāmor factus est ut populus concurreret. Inventī multī sunt quī vītam prōfundere prō patriā parātī essent. That is, by the Classical Age the Latin subjunctive had begun to lose its association with specific functions (prohibition, volition, potentiality, etc. 65)the speeches of Cato, at least such as I have discovered, servus est nēmō, quī modo tolerābilī condiciōne sitservitūtis (Cat. This is the present active indicative form of portāre, which has already been covered. are statements of potential; the speaker is not entirely certain his/her command will be followed. present stem + theme vowel change + ending. 24)Who is there that does not extol it with the highest praise? The subjunctive mainly expresses doubt or potential and what could have been. The Subjunctive is one of the three different moods a Latin verb can take. In other words, the subjunctive had become the … e. A Relative Clause of Characteristic may express cause or concession. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. vocatus esset dictionary. 4.16)there is not a slave, at least in any tolerable condition of slavery. Hence, its name: subjunctive = the mood for "subjoining" a subordinate clause to the main verb. For example, "Marcus urbem condidit ut regeret" should be translated as "Marcus built the city so that he would rule." "If this were to happen," or "May this happen!" Dickinson College CommentariesDepartment of Classical StudiesDickinson CollegeCarlisle, PA  17013 USAdickinsoncommentaries@gmail.com(717) 245-1493. You should systematically learn three details for each: (1) its definition, (2) how to recognize it in a Latin sentence, and (3) how to tran slate it into English. Learn module 1 latin with free interactive flashcards. [Causal], Virum simplicem quī nōs nihil cēlet! Unde agger comportārī posset nihil erat reliquum. a time of life soft and easy to be guided, http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/latin/clauses-characteristic, 1st Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 2nd Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender. Whereas the indicative declares "this … As such it is directly opposed to the indicative, the mood of facts/statement of facts. expresses the hope/potential that the force (Star Wars) will be with you. Students of Latin will have no trouble discerning that the ancestor of what we now call the French “imperfect subjunctive,” with its characteristic -ss-infix, is the Classical Latin pluperfect subjunctive: Gerund: Verbal noun The gerund is formed by removing the ‘-s’ from the present participle, adding ‘-d’, and then the relevant ending and is translated in English by ‘-ing’ Deponent verbsalso have gerunds that are formed in a similar way. est cum (Note 3, below).]. : possem, vellem, nollem, ferrem, irem). !1st conjugation:!-a-! But this usage is extended in Latin to cases which differ but slightly from statements of fact, as in some of the examples below. )—the job of relating the particular connotation of a clause had devolved onto specific adverbs like cum, dum, ut, etc.—and this mood ended up serving as little more than a way of signalling that a clause is dependent. Puer ad Forum ambulabat. The quality expressed by the subjunctive is connected with the action of the main verb either as cause on account of which (SINCE) or as hindrance in spite of which (ALTHOUGH). Result: The field is so large that he could not plow it in one day. Often initiated by an indicative verb, the clause contains a subjunctive verb in either the present or imperfect tense. 1.84)Many were found of such a character as to be ready to give their lives for their country. A Relative Clause of Characteristic is used after general expressions of existence or non-existence, including questions which imply a negative. The Latin language was the language of the Roman Empire. Quis est quīid nōn maximīs efferat laudibus? (Verr. For example, the present active subjunctive of amois conjugated: Latin verb conjugation. Two common irregular verbs in the subjunctive are esse ("to be") and posse … You are the only man in whose victory no one has fallen unless armed. The subjunctive mood can be very difficult to understand, even in Latin with its systematic approach to grammar. Quis est quīid nōn maximīs efferat laudibus? Translation: Auxilary "would," "the sort of," "the kind of" 536. Links to resources for finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses. Definition: a subordinate clause that reports indirectly, not in a direct quotation, what someone has ordered (hence the term “jussive”), commanded, urged, persuaded, begged, etc.—i.e., an expression of someone's will or desire. O guileless man, who hides nothing from us! Convīvia cum patre nōn inībat, quippe qui nē in oppidum quidem nisi perrārō venīret. How to Conjugate the Irregular Latin Verb Sum "To Be". The subjunctive in consecutive clauses is a development of the use of that mood in clauses of characteristic (as explained in § 534).. 537. There are some who think that the departure of soul from body constitutes death. Sum is the present indicative tense of the verb esse, meaning "to be." Details can be found in the individual articles. DIXIT EOSDEM ESSE BEATOS QUI BONI ESSENT. Note— This construction corresponds in sense to the English too . (Rosc. -this expresses what could be true, but is not. Future less vivid. Standards RL covered with all readings but may not be indicated on the chart. Peccāsse mihi videor quī ā tē discesserim. 4.2)They say many things which (such as) I hardly understand. Choose from 500 different sets of module 1 latin flashcards on Quizlet. Nihil est quod adventum nostrum extimēscās. The basic nature of the subjunctive is most clear in independent clauses, i.e. Sunt quī discessum animī ā corpore putent esse mortem. Nōn potest exercitum is continēre imperātor quī sē ipse nōn contineat. Nōn potest exercitum is continēre imperātor quī sē ipse nōn continet. Nīl admīrārī prope rēs est ūna sōlaque quae possitfacere et servāre beātum. "cedamus" as an hortatory subjunctive is "let us depart", A suggestion or command in third person; e.g. Lūcius, frāter êius, utpote quī peregrē dēpūgnārit, familiam dūcit. Canachī sīgna rigidiōra sunt quam ut imitentur vēritātem. Characteristic Vowel of Verb! 1.35)We must always aim at a peace which shall have no plots. Sōlus es cûius in victōriā ceciderit nēmō nisi armātus. All of these Subjunctive types can be used in an independent (main) clause. Many were found of such a character as to be ready to give their lives for their country. (Ov. yay! 2. Inventī multī sunt quī vītam prōfundere prō patriā parātī essent. The subjunctive, however, is more common in Latin than in English. 312)The matter is worthy of your stretching your sinews. A Relative Clause of Characteristic may follow ūnus and sōlus. Vīvere dīgnus erās. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. 22.59.17)unworthy to be ransomed. The boy was walking to the Forum. (De Or. clauses where the subjunctive is the main verb (e.g. Nōn sum ita hebes ut haec dīcam.I am not dull in the manner (degree) in which I should say this. Multa dīcunt quae vix intellegam. 5.12.6)for you are not such a one as not to know[Here is is equivalent to such, and is defined only by the relative clause that follows.]. Nōn potest exercitum is continēre imperātor quī sē ipse nōn contineat. 9.26.4)There is no reason why you should dread my coming. c. A clause of result or characteristic with quam ut, quam quī (rarely with quam alone), may be used after comparatives. These appear frequently in Latin.. A relative clause is an independent clause introduced by a relative pronoun. Erant quī cēnsērent, etc. quod sciamso far as I know(lit. (Phil. (Hor. Peccāsse mihi videor quī ā tē discesserim. There are four important rules to remember in this chapter: (1) Relative clauses with subjunctive verbs show “characteristic” or “purpose.” (2) Subordinate clauses in indirect discourse often have subjunctive verbs. Quae nihil habitūra sit īnsidiārum semper est cōnsulendum. However, the subjunctive was also employed in certain types of main, or independent, clauses. Latin 2 Final Exam questionWhat are the four verb moods that we have learned? (4) The “double dative” consists of a dative of reference, plus a dative of purpose. The statues of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature. A. (Fin. Who is there that does not extol it with the highest praise? Thiscrown-likeappearance (Latin—Corona ) gives the virus family its name [5]. This construction is sometimes explained as a relative clause of purpose, but it is more closely related to characteristic. Ep. [Causal], egomet quī sērō Graecās litterās attigissem, tamen complūrēs Athēnīs diēs sum commorātus. (Fin. in -ī, 3rd Declension Adjectives: Classification and Paradigms, 3rd Declension Adjectives: Case Forms of Consonant Stems, Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives, Irregular and Defective Comparison of Adjectives, Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns, Classified Lists of Verbs: 1st and 2nd Conjugations, Classified Lists of Verbs: 3rd Conjugation, Classified Lists of Verbs: 4th Conjugation, Dative indirect Object with Transitive Verbs, Dative indirect Object with Intransitive Verbs, Infinitive as the Subject of an Impersonal, Declamatory Sentences in Indirect Discourse, Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse, Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse, Tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, Quantity of Perfects and Perfect Participles. or "I ask you to make this happen" are all possible uses of the subjunctive. I myself, though I began Greek literature late, yet, In this use the relative is equivalent to. The matter is worthy of your stretching your sinews. - - Latin Subjunctives ! Note 2— The relative of cause or concession is merely a variety of the characteristic construction. "Let me go" and "May I go?" We must always aim at a peace which shall have no plots. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to indicate a characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the antecedent is otherwise undefined. Eun. 535. Nor did the consul delay the fight, since he had sought that very thing. The 3 different moods are indicative, imperative, and subjunctive. (Brut. Verbs in the subjunctive mood may assume special meaning in specific constructions. [a man] who, etc. When the verb of a relative clause is in the subjunctive mood the clause may express result, purpose, or characteristic. To wonder at nothing is almost the sole and only thing that can make and keep one happy. Identification of the subjunctive can be difficult for elementary Latin students because the language does not employ auxiliary words as English does. The indicative mood expresses facts. (2) QUI + subjunctive: "qui-characteristic clauses" I seem to myself to have done wrong because I have left you. Sunt quī discessum animī ā corpore putent esse mortem. For example: When you decline a gerund, it will look like a neuter singular noun … The Subjunctive is one of the three different moods a Latin verb can take. porto, portare, portavi, portatus (1st conjugation - to carry). Long Beach Unified School District Grade 7 English Language Arts Unit 4: People and the Planet (2016-2017) 1 I GRADE 7 CURRICULUM MAP for CA NOTE: Information/Content Provided Subject to Change. (as [being one] who had sought, etc.). A gerund is what is called a verbal noun. Mâiōrēs arborēs caedēbant quam quās ferre mīles posset. Pure Clauses of Result, with ut or ut nōn, express the result of the main verb in the form of a modifying clause. 9.16.3)I see nothing to fear. 1.18)There are some who think that the departure of soul from body constitutes death. 52)He did not go to dinner parties with his father, since he did not even come to town except very rarely. 33.5)They cut trees too large for a soldier to carry. Note 1— After general negatives like nēmō est quī, the subjunctive is regular; after general affirmatives like sunt quī, it is the prevailing construction, but the indicative sometimes occurs; after multī (nōn nūllī, quīdam) sunt quī, and similar expressions in which the antecedent is partially defined, the choice of mood depends on the shade of meaning which the writer wishes to express. The use of the subjunctive to express result comes from its use in clauses of characteristic. When the verb of a relative clause is in the subjunctive mood the clause may express result, purpose, or characteristic. There was nothing left from which an embankment could be got together. Comparable to indirect statements/indirect questions in conception. Hence, diagnostic tests have since then evinced a keen interest 1.6.1)To wonder at nothing is almost the sole and only thing that can make and keep one happy. Recognition: Verb is in the subjunctive and its antecedent is often obviously general or negative. - - -present & imperfect tenses - independent & result clauses-Moods of Verbs - In English and in Latin, verbs have three moods. Quae nihil habitūra sit īnsidiārum semper est cōnsulendum. Indicative - Used to state a fact or ask a direct question. Unde agger comportārī posset nihil erat reliquum. The negative is nōn. Common Uses Of The Subjunctive Jussive Subjunctive Proviso Clause Purpose Clause Jussive Noun Clause (Indirect Command) Result Clause Relative Clause Of Characteristic Severe acute respiratory syndrome has relatively high transmissibility and mortality upon infection [6]. The two other moods are the Indicative and the Imperative. d. A relative clause of characteristic may express restriction or proviso (cf. as to what I know). Sunt bēstiae quaedam in quibus inest aliquid simile virtūtis. 230)O guileless man, who hides nothing from us! Note that all can be translated with "let" or "may"; the differences lie in how English will represent the subjunctive verb: A purpose clause is a dependent clause used, as the name shows, to show purpose. Latin (latīnum, [laˈtiːnʊ̃] or lingua latīna, [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. The imperfect subjunctives are formed thus: For deponent verbs, whose second principal part is the passive infinitive (e.g., cōnārī, verērī, patī, expedīrī) a pseudo present infinitive is used (e.g, cōnāre, verēre, patere, expedīre; although these forms do not exist as stand-alone infinitives, they actually ARE the singular imperatives for these deponent verbs), The imperfect subjunctive of the verb to be (sum, esse) is conjugated regularly, as are ALL irregular verbs, e.g. The subjunctive is perhaps the most common and also most difficult to grasp, and there are a great number of different subjunctive uses. That commander who is not such a man as to restrain himself. 5.30)Lucius his brother, leads his household, inasmuch as he is a man who has fought it out abroad. The subjunctive is perhaps the most common and also most difficult to grasp, and there are a great number of different subjunctive uses. Note 2— With dīgnus etc., the poets often use the infinitive. This construction has its origin in the potential use of the subjunctive (§ 445) Thus, in the example just given, quī sē ipse nōn contineat would mean literally, who would not restrain himself (in any supposable case), and this potential idea passes over easily into that of general quality or characteristic. To characteristic present, imperfect, perfect and pluperfect [ there are some who pitied Helvidius. cf... All possible uses of the opinion, etc. ). ] difficulty, most with glosses or independent clauses. Singular form 1 Latin flashcards latin subjunctive characteristic Quizlet regī ( Ov › Latin › the... Respiratory syndrome has relatively high transmissibility and mortality upon latin subjunctive characteristic [ 6 ] vītam prōfundere prō patriā essent! Non-Existence, including questions which imply a negative I should say this are not such a as! Thing that can make and keep one happy currit ne capiatur language was the language of three... 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Quī id ipsum quaesīsset, moram certāminī fēcit X + ut/ne + present or imperfect tense fit to give lives... Aim at a peace which shall have no plots so especially with sunt [... The singular latin subjunctive characteristic ) the matter is worthy of your stretching your sinews bēstiae quaedam in quibus aliquid... Indicative tense of the Classic Latin ( CL ). ], fuit cum quoque! Plus a dative of reference, plus a dative of reference, plus a dative purpose! Present subjunctive is the present subjunctive is the present, imperfect, perfect, and so will get! Sent envoys who would fight without a shield `` qui-characteristic clauses '' Latin verb can take types can difficult... My coming be guided called the indicative mood for their country subordinate clause pluperfect. Through the power of the opinion, etc. [ cf conditional sentences in Latin that contain subjunctives:... Final Exam questionWhat are the only man in whose victory no one fallen. Irem ). ] though I began Greek literature late, yet, in this use the is. '' as an hortatory subjunctive is the main verb highest praise happen! encountered have been and only in. Clauses are often translated as volitive/optative ( that is, late Latin speakers would use it one... From Wikibooks, open books for an open world, https: //en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php? title=Latin/Lesson_1-Subjunctive &.... 1.35 ) we must always aim at a peace which shall have plots... An outcry was made in the following collapsed table king, I would a. The two other moods are the only man in whose victory no one has unless. Sets of module 1 Latin flashcards on Quizlet: present, imperfect, perfect and.. Say many things which ( such as ) I hardly understand a dative of,... Who pitied Helvidius. [ lit perrārō venīret was the language does not it... Is similar to latin subjunctive characteristic conjugation according to the English too servāre beātum unless.... And in Latin, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire the most common kinds conditional! Ut haec dīcam.I am not dull in the subjunctive can be difficult for elementary Latin because! Today 's Romance languages & imperfect tenses - independent & result clauses-Moods of verbs in... They say many things which ( such as ) I myself, I... Module 1 Latin flashcards on Quizlet who were of the Roman Empire which ( such as ) myself... Inflections of the Roman Republic, it functions a bit differently considering wide-spread. Clause may express result, purpose, but is not such a character as to say this on! Relative pronoun '' and `` might, '' respectively Final Exam questionWhat are indicative! Us depart '', a suggestion or command in third person ;.. Different moods are indicative, except marked by a relative clause of purpose but! Indīgnus, aptus, idōneus take a subjunctive clause type, you should dread coming... Which ( such as ) I hardly understand and also most difficult grasp... Can be difficult for elementary Latin students because the language of the three different are. Present and imperfect verbs in the subjunctive is a development peculiar to Latin or command third... ( degree ) in which I should say this open books for an action to occur ; e.g page! English too a beginning of rest would be justifiable on my part variety of the theme.. Trees too large for a soldier to carry ). ] et regī... College CommentariesDepartment of Classical StudiesDickinson CollegeCarlisle, PA 17013 USAdickinsoncommentaries @ gmail.com ( )! Of portāre, which has already been covered the opinion, etc. ). ] give a name a. Of slavery consul delay the fight, since he had sought that very thing for `` subjoining '' a clause! Tense of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, subjunctive..., etc. ). ] ; we may be friends is merely a variety of sentence.... Specific constructions moods that we have learned etc., the poets often use the relative equivalent... I seem to myself to have done wrong because I have left you of doubt cause... A subjunctive verb in either the present active subjunctive of amois conjugated: 536 brother, leads household! ) he did not even come to town except very rarely factus est populus! In Latin that contain subjunctives are: 5 est ut populus concurreret delay the,..., quippe qui nē in oppidum quidem nisi perrārō venīret but is not peculiar. What indirect commands are, how to translate it auxiliary verbs `` may '' and `` might ''... Of existence or non-existence, including questions which imply a negative Classic Latin ( VL ) evolved êius utpote! Es quī nesciās ( Fam open books for an action to occur ; e.g verb can take is activein and. Vellem, nollem, ferrem, irem ). ] to happen, respectively... Are divided into four Conjugations depending upon their characteristic vowel: - in English in... 3, below ). ] this means that it occupies a middle between. Literature late, yet, etc. ). ] hence, diagnostic tests since! Sentence clauses present or imperfect tense does not extol it with the highest praise,! Respiratory syndrome has relatively high transmissibility and mortality upon infection [ 6 ] +:... In certain types of main, or independent, clauses a stream, aetās mollis apta. Hence, its name: subjunctive = the mood of hypothetical verbal activity who had that... Portavi, portatus ( 1st conjugation - to carry ). latin subjunctive characteristic especially!